Multi-photon ionization (MPI) spectroscopy of solid surfaces under ambient conditions and in nitrogen has been established and exemplified for a variety of materials. This was accomplished using a dedicated experimental setup that monitors the photoelectron yield as a function of the laser wavelength. The MPI spectra resemble the absorption characteristics, however, possess more peaks and are more detailed. This demonstrated the possibility to apply MPI spectroscopy for fast analysis of solids. The dependence of the signals upon the laser flux implies that the ionization mechanism depends on the examined molecule and in many cases it is a two-step process, via a long-living intermediate energy state. The method provides quantification in the pmole range and allows for surface imaging.
- Solid analysis