Global warming is becoming a world‐challenging issue related to the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly from CO2. A lot of effort has been put on reduction of CO2 emission from large CO2 point sources such as fossil fuel power plants and other industries. Membrane technology has already been used in selected gas separation processes such as air separation, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, and hydrogen production during the last two decades, and can be potentially used for CO2 capture due to its energy‐efficient and low cost. In this article, a brief review of membrane materials (organic and inorganic) and their properties (physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical stability, and gas separation performance) is provided, and then the main directions of industrial applications of CO2 capture using membrane systems are also surveyed. The challenges of membrane systems used for CO2 capture are discussed to document that process design and pretreatment are very important for membrane unit operations. Moreover, the process feasibility for CO2 capture using different membranes was evaluated by process simulation, economic cost estimation and comparison with traditional amine‐based absorption method in some specific applications.