A new method for detoxification of hydrophilic chloroorganic pollutants in effluent water was developed, using a combination of ultrasound waves, electrochemistry and Fenton's reagent. The advantages of the method are exemplified using two target compounds: the common herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its derivative 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The high degradation power of this process is due to the large production of oxidizing hydroxyl radicals and high mass transfer due to sonication. Application of this sono-electrochemical Fenton process (SEF) treatment (at 20 kHz) with quite a small current density, accomplished almost 50% oxidation of 2,4-D solution (300 ppm, 1.2 mM) in just 60 s. Similar treatments ran for 600 s resulted in practically full degradation of the herbicide; sizable oxidation of 2,4-DCP also occurs. The main intermediate compounds produced in the SEF process were identified. Their kinetic profile was measured and a chemical reaction scheme was suggested. The efficiency of the SEF process is tentatively much higher than the reference degradation methods and the time required for full degradation is considerably shorter. The SEF process maintains high performance up to concentrations which are higher than reference methods. The optimum concentration of Fe2+ ions required for this process was found to be of about 2 mM, which is lower than that in reference techniques. These findings indicate that SEF process may be an effective method for detoxification of environmental water.
- Fenton reagent
- Ultrasound wave