The utilization of agricultural waste as agro-cement in concrete: A review

Jing He, Satoru Kawasaki, Varenyam Achal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Concrete, as the world's most implemented construction material, is increasingly being used because of the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization. Limited resources and progressive depravation of the environment are forcing scientific efforts to seek alternative and effective materials from large amounts of natural resources as additives in the partial replacement of cement. Cement is a main constituent of concrete. To solve and minimize environmental issues, research works attempting to employ the wide availability of agricultural wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, rice husk, sugar cane straw, and palm oil fuel, among others, into cement, and to finally bring sustainable and environmentally friendly properties to concrete are being examined. Agro-waste materials are crushed into fine and coarse aggregates or are burnt into ash, and are then mixed with cement, which is known as agro-cement. The replacement of aggregates, either partially or fully, is also deemed as a sustainable material in construction. This paper mainly reviews the current research on agro-cement that has been researched and applied for the enhancement of the strength and durability of concrete. It further summarizes the relevant knowledge and techniques, while providing optimal parameters for applying agricultural wastes in concrete.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6971
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Agricultural waste
  • Agro-cement
  • Concrete
  • Construction
  • Durability


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