The roles of gas bubbling, wall crystallization and particulate deposition in CaSO4 scale formation

Dan Bramson, David Hasson*, Rafi Semiat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The objective of this work was to seek conditions leading to rapid deposition of a tenacious calcium sulfate scale layer from a falling film flowing on a heated stainless steel surface. The main results were as follows: (A) The rate of calcium sulfate scale deposition was considerably enhanced (by a factor of 5-10) when boiling occurred on the film flowing on the heat transfer surface; (B) Filtration of suspended calcium sulfate particles from the feed solution led to a very large reduction (by a factor of 20-30) in the rate of scale deposition. This result is entirely opposite to that encountered in the formation of calcium carbonate scales where particle filtration greatly enhances the rate of deposition of a calcium carbonate scale layer and increases considerably scale tenacity. These observations suggest that the dominant mechanisms in calcium sulfate formaiton is particulate deposition while the dominant mechanism in calcium carbonate scale formation is wall crystallization. (C) Pure calcium sulfate scale deposits were found to be far less adherent than deposits containing co-precipitated calcium carbonate. The co-precipitated calcium carbonate seems to act as a bonding cement, enhancing considerably the tenacity of the calcium sulfate scale layer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-113
Number of pages9
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jan 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • CaCO scale
  • CaSO scale
  • Scale deposition mechanisms


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