A new water treatment technology is presented for extending the longevity and increasing the maximal bio-load of container-bound, lucrative live seafood transportations. The technology is designed for removing ammonia and minimizing the bacterial concentration that develop in the water during the transport. This paper focuses on the characteristics of self-synthesized polyether-sulfone (PES) coated Zn-HCF composite beads, which have a high adsorbing capacity for NH4+ in seawater and constitute the heart of the developed technology. Adsorption isotherms show that the operational capacity of the composite material (PES = 20% w/w) at NH4+ concentration of 10 mgN/L at 3.5 °C is ∼3 mgN/g Zn-HCF. The kinetics of the PES-coated beads were shown to be considerably slower than the bare Zn-HCF, but since the retention time in the transport is long (many days), this does not detract from the effectiveness of the adsorption. Simulation experiments with and without live fish showed that the adsorbing material behaved as expected during a 21-d trip and that it did not have any effect on the fish. Repeated adsorption/regeneration (3 and 6 M NaCl) tests proved the composite material's stability and ion-exchange robustness. Electrooxidation of the ammonia in the exhausted regeneration solution was carried out with high efficiency and the treated solution could be used effectively in the following chemical regeneration step. The cost of a treatment unit installed in a 40-foot container was estimated at $40,000 and the ROI at 6 to 12 months.
- Ammonia adsorption in seawater
- Live seafood transportation