Recent Advances in Carbon Dioxide Adsorption, Activation and Hydrogenation to Methanol using Transition Metal Carbides

Prabodh Ranjan*, Vitthal B. Saptal, Jitendra K. Bera*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The inevitable emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the burning of a substantial amount of fossil fuels has led to serious energy and environmental challenges. Metal-based catalytic CO2 transformations into commodity chemicals are a favorable approach in the CO2 mitigation strategy. Among these transformations, selective hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is the most promising process that not only fulfils the energy demands but also re-balances the carbon cycle. The investigation of CO2 adsorption on the surface of heterogeneous catalyst is highly important because the formation of various intermediates which determines the selectivity of product. Transition metal carbides (TMCs) have received considerable attention in recent years because of their noble metal-like reactivity, ceramic-like properties, high chemical and thermal stability. These features make them excellent catalytic materials for a variety of transformations such as CO2 adsorption and its conversion into value-added chemicals. Herein, the catalytic properties of TMCs are summarize along with synthetic methods, CO2 binding modes, mechanistic studies, effects of dopant on CO2 adsorption, and carbon/metal ratio in the CO2 hydrogenation reaction to methanol using computational as well as experimental studies. Additionally, this Review provides an outline of the challenges and opportunities for the development of potential TMCs in CO2 hydrogenation reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202201183
Issue number21
StatePublished - 8 Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • carbon dioxide adsorption
  • density functional theory
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • methanol
  • transition metal carbides


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