Ptychographic reconstruction algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: Super-resolution and supreme robustness

Pavel Sidorenko, Oren Lahav, Zohar Avnat, Oren Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is a very popular technique for complete characterization of ultrashort laser pulses. In FROG, a reconstruction algorithm retrieves the pulse amplitude and phase from a measured spectrogram; yet, current FROG reconstruction algorithms require and exhibit several restricting features that weaken FROG performances. For example, the delay step must correspond to the spectral bandwidth measured with a large enough SNR—a condition that limits the temporal resolution of the reconstructed pulse, obscures measurements of weak broadband pulses, and makes measurements of broadband mid-IR pulses hard and slow because the spectrograms become huge due to the geometrical time-smearing effect. We develop a new approach for FROG reconstruction based on ptychography (a scanning coherent diffraction imaging technique), that removes many of the algorithmic restrictions. The ptychographic reconstruction algorithm is significantly faster and more robust to noise than current FROG algorithms that are based on generalized projections (GP). We demonstrate, numerically and experimentally, that ptychographic reconstruction works well with very partial spectrograms, e.g., spectrograms with a reduced number of measured delays and spectrograms that have been substantially spectrally filtered. In addition, we implement the ptychographic approach to blind second harmonic generation (SHG) FROG and demonstrate robust and complete characterization of two unknown pulses from a single measured spectrogram and the power spectrum of only one of the pulses. We believe that the ptychography-based approach will become the standard reconstruction procedure in FROG and related diagnostics methods, allowing successful reconstructions from so far unreconstructable spectrograms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1320-1330
Number of pages11
Issue number12
StatePublished - 20 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Femtosecond phenomena
  • Ultrafast measurements
  • Ultrafast optics


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