The phylogenetic diversity and axial distribution of microorganisms in three sections of the gastrointestinal tracts of the polychaete Neanthes glandicincta was evaluated using both most probable number method and cloning analyses of 16S rRNA genes in this study. Quantification of the density of microorganisms in the gut showed that aerobic microorganisms decreased from anterior to posterior, while anaerobic ones showed a reverse trend. The total numbers of microorganisms decreased significantly (p<0.05, analysis of variance) but more rapidly from the anterior to the middle segment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominating phylogenetic groups included Methanomicrobiales I: Methanosaetaceae (up to 66% of archaeal clones), δ-Proteobacteria (up to 42% of bacterial clones), and γ-Proteobacteria (up to 30% of bacterial clones) widely distributed throughout the entire gut. Other microbiota distributed in different gut sections were Methanomicrobiales II: Methanospirillaceae, Methanomicrobiales III, Thermoplasmatales, Crenarchaea, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanosarcinales for archaea; and α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Clostridia, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes for bacteria. The results reveal a difference in microbial community structure along the gut of N. glandicincta. The various phylogenetic diversity and axial distribution of microbes along the gut might indicate an environmental gradient from anterior to posterior sections affecting the structure of the microbial community.