Nanoparticle design by gas-phase synthesis

Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Stephan Steinhauer, Jerome Vernieres, Vidyadhar Singh, Mukhles Sowwan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


Gas-phase synthesis characterizes a class of bottom-up methods for producing multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) from individual atoms or molecules. This review aims to summarize recent achievements using this approach, and compare its potential to other physical or chemical NP fabrication techniques. More specifically, emphasis is given to magnetron-sputter gas-phase condensation, since it allows for flexible growth of complex, sophisticated NPs, owing to the fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes it entails. Nanoparticle synthesis is decomposed into four stages, i.e. aggregation, shell-coating, mass-filtration, and deposition. We present the formation of NPs of various functionalities for different applications, such as magnetic, plasmonic, catalytic and, gas-sensing, emphasizing on the primary dependence of each type on a different stage of the fabrication process, and their resultant physical and chemical properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-100
Number of pages20
JournalAdvances in Physics: X
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 61.46.Bc Structure of clusters
  • 68.37.-d microscopy of surfaces, interfaces and thin films
  • 75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems
  • 81.16.-c Methods of Micro and nano fabrication and processing
  • Magnetron sputtering
  • catalytic nanoparticles
  • inert gas condensation
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • nanoclusters
  • plasmonic nanoparticles


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