A newly reported 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primer set was successfully applied to detect anammox bacteria from four ecosystem samples, including sediments from marine, reservoir, mangrove wetland, and wastewater treatment plant sludge. This primer set showed ability to amplify a much wider coverage of all reported anammox bacterial genera. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, two new clusters were obtained, one closely related to Candidatus Scalindua, and the other in a previously reported novel genus related to Candidatus Brocadia. In the Scalindua cluster, four new subclusters were also found in this study, mainly by sequences of the South China Sea sediments, presenting a higher diversity of Candidatus Scalindua in marine environment. Community structure analyses indicated that samples were grouped together based on ecosystems, showing a niche-specific distribution. Phylogenetic analyses of anammox bacteria in samples from the South China Sea also indicated distinguished community structure along the depth. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the amount of anammox bacteria in the detected samples was positively correlated with the nitrate concentration. According to Canonical Correspondence Analysis, pH, temperature, nitrite, and nitrate concentration strongly affected the diversity and distribution of anammox bacteria in South China Sea sediments. Results collectively indicated a promising application of this new primer set and higher anammox bacteria diversity in the marine environment.
- Primer, 16S rRNA gene