Molecular doping of near-infrared organic photodetectors for photoplethysmogram sensors

Binghao Wang, Alberto D. Scaccabarozzi, Haoyang Wang, Mari Koizumi, Mohamad Insan Nugraha, Yuanbao Lin, Yuliar Firdaus, Yan Wang, Sunghoon Lee, Tomoyuki Yokota*, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Takao Someya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Doping is a common strategy in the field of semiconductor technology but its employment in organic photodetectors (OPDs) has been limited due to the typical uncontrollable increase of the dark currents. This study introduces three different molecular dopants, including p-type tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, n-type benzyl viologen, and (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)dimethylamine, for near-infrared poly[[2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyl)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-3,6-dioxopyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-diyl]-alt-[3′,3′′-dimethyl-2,2′:5′,2′′-terthiophene]-5,5′′-diyl]:[6,6]-phenyl C61butyric acid methyl ester (PMDPP3T:PC61BM) bulk-heterojunction OPDs. The results show that OPDs with optimal 0.02 wt% dopants exhibit low dark current (3.18 × 10−8A cm−2), high detectivity (5.56 × 1012Jones), and good environmental stability for ∼2 months. These doped OPDs are further used for pulse wave monitoring, which exhibit stable waveforms and can distinguish slow and fast heartbeat rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3129-3135
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number9
StatePublished - 7 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


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