Liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) in the thermochemical waste heat recuperation systems: The energy and mass balances

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This paper is presented a concept of thermochemical recuperation of waste heat based on hydrogen extraction from liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC), on the example of methylcyclohexane-toluene system. The advantages of this concept is described, for example, a possibility to use a moderate low temperature of waste heat for generation high-exergy “green” hydrogen fuel. To understand the effect of operating parameters on the energy and mass balance, the thermodynamic analysis was performed. The chemical system for hydrogen generation was analyzed via Gibbs free energy minimization method. The thermodynamic analysis was conducted under various operating conditions: temperature of 100–400 °C, pressure of 1–4 bar. Aspen HYSYS software was used for the energy and mass conservation analysis. Sankey diagram for the energy flows is depicted. The results showed that the maximum energy efficiency the thermochemical waste heat recuperation system have in the temperature range above 300–350 °C. In this temperature range, the effect of pressure on the energy balance is negligible and it is recommended for the thermochemical recuperation system to use LOHC with a pressure of 1.5–2 bar. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the temperature potential of waste heat for about 300–350 °C is enough for the investigated concept. An analysis of a mass balance showed that the decreasing in condensation temperature leads to a significant increasing in the share of condensed toluene from toluene-hydrogen mixture after a reactor. If temperature of a hydrogen-toluene mixture of 20 °C at pressure above 2 bar about 96% of toluene can be condensed after the first condenser.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28721-28729
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number67
StatePublished - 5 Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Hydrogen
  • LOHC
  • Mass balance
  • Thermochemical recuperation
  • Thermodynamic analysis


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