In situ transmission electron microscopy provides exciting opportunities to address fundamental questions and technological aspects related to functional nanomaterials, including the structure-property relationships of miniaturized electronic devices. Herein, we report the in situ chemoresistive sensing in the environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a single SnO2 nanowire device, studying the impact of surface functionalization with heterogeneous nanocatalysts. By detecting toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas at ppm-level concentrations inside the microscope column, the sensing properties of a single SnO2 nanowire were characterized before and after decoration with hybrid Fe-Pd nanocubes. The structural changes of the supported nanoparticles induced by sensor operation were revealed, enabling direct correlation with CO sensing properties. Our novel approach is applicable for a broad range of functional nanomaterials and paves the way for future studies on the relationship between chemoresistive properties and nanoscale morphology.