Microbial colonization on stone monuments leads to subsequent biodeterioration; determining the microbe diversity, compositions, and metabolic capacities is essential for understanding biodeterioration mechanisms and undertaking heritage management. Here, samples of epilithic biofilm and naturally weathered and exfoliated sandstone particles from different locations at the Beishiku Temple were collected to investigate bacterial and fungal community diversity and structure using a culture-based method. The biodeterioration potential of isolated fungal strains was analyzed in terms of pigmentation, calcite dissolution, organic acids, biomineralization ability, and biocide susceptibility. The results showed that the diversities and communities of bacteria and fungi differed for the different sample types from different locations. The population of culturable microorganisms in biofilm samples was more abundant than that present in the samples exposed to natural weathering. The environmental temperature, relative humidity, and pH were closely related to the variation in and distribution of microbial communities. Fungal biodeterioration tests showed that isolated strains four and five were pigment producers and capable of dissolving carbonates, respectively. Their biomineralization through the precipitation of calcium oxalate and calcite carbonate could be potentially applied as a biotechnology for stone heritage consolidation and the mitigation of weathering for monuments. This study adds to our understanding of culturable microbial communities and the bioprotection potential of fungal biomineralization.
|State||Published - 8 Feb 2023|
- stone monuments
- organic acid