Carbon dioxide storage in petroleum and other geological reservoirs is an economical option for long-term separation of this gas from the atmosphere. Other options include applications through conversion to valuable chemicals. Microalgae and plants perform direct fixation of carbon dioxide to biomass, which is then used as raw material for further microbial transformation (MT). The approach by microbial transformation can achieve reduction of carbon dioxide and production of biofuels. This review addresses the research and technological processes related to direct MT of carbon dioxide, factors affecting their efficiency in operation and the review of economic feasibility. Additionally, some commercial plants making utilization of CO2 around the globe are also summarized along with different value-added chemicals (methane, acetate, fatty acids and alcohols) as reported in literature. Further information is also provided for a better understanding of direct CO2 MT and its future prospects leading to a sustainable and clean environment.
- Carbon dioxide
- Direct microbial transformation
- Electron donors
- Green biotechnology
- Value-added products