Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from passenger vehicles have attracted considerable interest over the last decade. In order to reduce PM emissions, improving maximum injection pressure has been a developing trend for new generation GDI engines. However, comparing gasoline and ethanol impingement spray characteristics from a GDI injector under high injection pressure is still unclear. In this paper, a comparative investigation on both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of impingement spray from a GDI injector fuelled with gasoline and ethanol was performed under injection pressure up to 50 MPa, providing new findings to promote a more homogeneous air–fuel mixture and reduce PM emissions. The experimental results show that under the same (injection pressure), rebound height of gasoline impingement spray is a bit higher than ethanol. (spray area) of gasoline is slightly higher than ethanol under . However, under and , of gasoline is gradually exceeded by that of ethanol as time progresses. By increasing to 50 MPa, the difference in (diffusion distance of the near side) between gasoline and ethanol is greatly reduced, meantime (diffusion distance of the far side) becomes weaker than ethanol. For both gasoline and ethanol, with the increase from 10 MPa to 50 MPa, (average normal component of droplet velocity) and (average tangential component of droplet velocity) of incident droplets increase by around 1 m/s. Meantime, there is a slight decrease in the absolute value of and of reflected droplets. (Sauter mean diameter of droplets) presents a significant decreasing trend with the increase of . Besides, a smaller can be seen for the gasoline impingement spray compared to ethanol under the same .
- Spray characteristics
- Impingement spray
- Gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector
- Injection pressure