Chemical stability and extent of isomorphous substitution in ferrites precipitated under ambient temperatures

Sivan Klas*, Yael Dubowski, Ori Lahav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The ferrite process is an established method for treating wastewaters containing dissolved toxic metals, using precipitation at temperatures above 65°C. Various ambient-temperature operation methodologies have also been proposed, but the effects of temperature reduction on product stability, and on the extent of isomorphous substitution (in terms of x in Me xFe 3-xO 4, Me representing a non-iron metal), have not been adequately quantified. At ambient temperature precipitation, maximal x of Zn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+ and Cd 2+ was found in the current study to be approximately 0.73, 0.67, 0.39 and 0.17, respectively. These values are 73% to 50% of the corresponding values attained by precipitation at 90°C. The chemical stability of the ferrites produced under ambient temperatures was found to deteriorate upon high Me 2+ incorporation levels, in stark contrast with the trend observed in ferrites precipitated at 90°C. Both observations were ascribed to the increased importance of Fe 2+-Fe 3+ interaction under ambient conditions in driving spinel ordering. In the presence of high Me to Fe ratio in the initial solution, this interaction is weaker, resulting in impeded dehydration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-64
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - 15 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Co-precipitation
  • Ferrite process
  • Heavy metals
  • Isomorphous substitution
  • Substituted magnetite


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