Water flooding is widely employed for oil production worldwide. However, there has never been a systematic investigation of the microbial communities occurring in oilfield water re-injection facilities. Here, we investigated the distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in water re-injection facilities of an oilfield, and illustrated the combined influences of environmental variation and the microorganisms in injected water on the microbial communities. Bacterial communities from the surface injection facilities were dominated by aerobic or facultative anaerobic Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, whereas Clostridia, Deltaproteobacteria, Anaerolineae, and Synergistia predominated in downhole of the injection wells, and Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria predominated in the production wells. Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanolinea were dominant archaea in the injection facilities, while Methanosaeta, Methanomethylovorans, and Methanoculleus predominated in the production wells. This study also demonstrated that the microorganisms in injected water could be easily transferred from injection station to wellheads and downhole of injection wells, and environmental variation and diffusion-limited microbial transfer resulted from formation filtration were the main factors determining microbial community assembly in oil-bearing strata. The results provide novel information on the bacterial and archaeal communities and the underlying mechanisms occurring in oilfield water re-injection facilities, and benefit the development of effective microbiologically enhanced oil recovery and microbiologically prevented reservoir souring programs.
- Microbial community
- Microbial transfer
- Microbial-enhanced oil recovery
- Petroleum reservoir
- Water re-injection facilities