## Abstract

I suggest that stars introduce mass and density scales that lead to “naturalness” in the Universe. Namely, two ratios of order unity. 1) The combination of the stellar mass scale, M_{*}(c, ℏ, G, m_{p}, m_{e}, e, …), with the Planck mass, M_{Pl}, and the Chandrasekhar mass leads to a ratio of order unity that reads (Formula presented.), where m_{p} is the proton mass. 2) A system with a dynamical time equals to the nuclear life times of stars, τ_{nuc*}, has a density of (Formula presented.). The ratio of the dark energy density to this density is N_{λ*} = ρ_{Λ}/ρ_{D*} ≈ 10^{−7}−10^{5}. Although the range is large, it is critically much smaller than the 123 orders of magnitude usually referred to when ρ_{Λ} is compered to the Planck density. In the pure fundamental particles domain there is no naturalness; either naturalness does not exist or there is a need for a new physics or new particles. The “Astrophysical Naturalness” offers a third possibility: stars introduce the combinations of, or relations among, known fundamental quantities that lead to naturalness.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 712544 |

Journal | Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences |

Volume | 8 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 25 Jan 2022 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Keywords

- Chandrasekhar mass
- Newtonian gravitational constant
- Planck constant
- dark energy
- stars: fundamental parameters