High-grade oil sand disintegration process is observed under a microscope (320x) to validate laboratory experiments on bitumen displacement and final contact angles of bitumen droplets on glass surfaces. The bitumen film on a sand grain was displaced by water and bitumen droplets were formed on the sand grain. Photographs of the bitumen/water/sand contact line and bitumen droplets are presented. Bitumen droplets formed on the sand grain and those on a microscope glass surface were compared. It is observed that the static contact angle of bitumen droplet on a sand grain is similar to that observed on a microscope glass slide in aqueous environment at a pH of 9.
- Bitumen displacement
- Bitumen liberation
- Dynamic and static contact angles
- High-grade oil sand
- Oil sand