We present a verification study of three simulation techniques for fluid–particle flows, including an Euler–Lagrange approach (EL) inspired by Jackson's seminal work on fluidized particles, a quadrature–based moment method based on the anisotropic Gaussian closure (AG), and the traditional two-fluid model. We perform simulations of two problems: particles in frozen homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) and cluster-induced turbulence (CIT). For verification, we evaluate various techniques for extracting statistics from EL and study the convergence properties of the three methods under grid refinement. The convergence is found to depend on the simulation method and on the problem, with CIT simulations posing fewer difficulties than HIT. Specifically, EL converges under refinement for both HIT and CIT, but statistics exhibit dependence on the postprocessing parameters. For CIT, AG produces similar results to EL. For HIT, converging both TFM and AG poses challenges. Overall, extracting converged, parameter-independent Eulerian statistics remains a challenge for all methods.
- Euler-Lagrange method
- computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
- fluid-particle flow
- kinetic theory of granular flow
- quadrature-based moment methods