Tunable Photodetectors via In Situ Thermal Conversion of TiS3 to TiO2

Foad Ghasemi, Riccardo Frisenda*, Eduardo Flores, Nikos Papadopoulos, Robert Biele, David Perez de Lara, Herre S.J. van der Zant, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Roberto D’Agosta, Jose R. Ares, Carlos Sánchez, Isabel J. Ferrer, Andres Castellanos-Gomez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


In two-dimensional materials research, oxidation is usually considered as a common source for the degradation of electronic and optoelectronic devices or even device failure. However, in some cases a controlled oxidation can open the possibility to widely tune the band structure of 2D materials. In particular, we demonstrate the controlled oxidation of titanium trisulfide (TiS3), a layered semicon-ductor that has attracted much attention recently thanks to its quasi-1D electronic and optoelectron-ic properties and its direct bandgap of 1.1 eV. Heating TiS3 in air above 300 °C gradually converts it into TiO2, a semiconductor with a wide bandgap of 3.2 eV with applications in photo-electrochemistry and catalysis. In this work, we investigate the controlled thermal oxidation of indi-vidual TiS3 nanoribbons and its influence on the optoelectronic properties of TiS3-based photodetec-tors. We observe a step-wise change in the cut-off wavelength from its pristine value ~1000 nm to 450 nm after subjecting the TiS3 devices to subsequent thermal treatment cycles. Ab-initio and many-body calculations confirm an increase in the bandgap of titanium oxysulfide (TiO2-xSx) when in-creasing the amount of oxygen and reducing the amount of sulfur.

Original languageEnglish
Article number711
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 2D materials
  • DFT GW
  • Oxidation
  • Photodetectors
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • TiO
  • TiS


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