The formation of slow-massive-wide jets

Noam Soker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


I propose a model for the formation of slow-massive-wide (SMW) jets by accretion disks around compact objects. This study is motivated by claims for the existence of SMW jets in some astrophysical objects such as in planetary nebulae (PNs) and in some active galactic nuclei in galaxies and in cooling flow clusters. In this model the energy still comes from accretion onto a compact object. The accretion disk launches two opposite jets with velocity of the order of the escape velocity from the accreting object and with mass outflow rate of ∼ 1 s(-) 20 % of the accretion rate as in most popular models for jet launching; in the present model these are termed fast-first-stage (FFS) jets. However, the FFS jets encounter surrounding gas that originates in the mass accretion process, and are terminated by strong shocks close to their origin. Two hot bubbles are formed. These bubbles accelerate the surrounding gas to form two SMW jets that are more massive and slower than the FFS jets. There are two conditions for this mechanism to work. Firstly, the surrounding gas should be massive enough to block the free expansion of the FFS jets. Most efficiently this condition is achieved when the surrounding gas is replenished. Secondly, the radiative energy losses must be small.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)296-303
Number of pages8
JournalNew Astronomy
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • (Galaxies): cooling flows
  • (ISM): planetary nebulae: general
  • Galaxies: jets
  • ISM: jets and outflows

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