Synthesis and characterization of zinc-hexacyanoferrate composite beads for controlling the ammonia concentration in low-temperature live seafood transports

Paz Nativ, Raz Ben-Asher*, Noga Fridman-Bishop, Ori Lahav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A new water treatment technology is presented for extending the longevity and increasing the maximal bio-load of container-bound, lucrative live seafood transportations. The technology is designed for removing ammonia and minimizing the bacterial concentration that develop in the water during the transport. This paper focuses on the characteristics of self-synthesized polyether-sulfone (PES) coated Zn-HCF composite beads, which have a high adsorbing capacity for NH4+ in seawater and constitute the heart of the developed technology. Adsorption isotherms show that the operational capacity of the composite material (PES = 20% w/w) at NH4+ concentration of 10 mgN/L at 3.5 °C is ∼3 mgN/g Zn-HCF. The kinetics of the PES-coated beads were shown to be considerably slower than the bare Zn-HCF, but since the retention time in the transport is long (many days), this does not detract from the effectiveness of the adsorption. Simulation experiments with and without live fish showed that the adsorbing material behaved as expected during a 21-d trip and that it did not have any effect on the fish. Repeated adsorption/regeneration (3 and 6 M NaCl) tests proved the composite material's stability and ion-exchange robustness. Electrooxidation of the ammonia in the exhausted regeneration solution was carried out with high efficiency and the treated solution could be used effectively in the following chemical regeneration step. The cost of a treatment unit installed in a 40-foot container was estimated at $40,000 and the ROI at 6 to 12 months.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117551
JournalWater Research
Volume203
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Ammonia adsorption in seawater
  • Hexacyanoferrate
  • Live seafood transportation
  • Regeneration

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