Skin Electronics: Next-Generation Device Platform for Virtual and Augmented Reality

Jae Joon Kim*, Yan Wang*, Haoyang Wang, Sunghoon Lee, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takao Someya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are overcoming the physical limits of real-life using advances in devices and software. In particular, the recent restrictions in transportation from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are making people more interested in these virtual experiences. However, to minimize the differences between artificial and natural perception, more human-interactive and human-like devices are necessary. The skin is the largest organ of the human body and interacts with the environment as the site of interfacing and sensing. Recent progress in skin electronics has enabled the use of the skin as the mounting object of functional devices and the signal pathway bridging humans and computers, with opening its potential in future VR and AR applications. In this review, the current skin electronics are summarized as one of the most promising device solutions for future VR/AR devices, especially focusing on the recent materials and structures. After defining and explaining VR/AR systems and the components, the advantages of skin electronics for VR/AR applications are emphasized. Next, the detailed functionalities of skin electronic devices, including the input, output, energy devices, and integrated systems, are reviewed for future VR/AR applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2009602
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number39
StatePublished - 23 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • augmented reality
  • on-skin input devices
  • on-skin output devices
  • skin electronics
  • virtual reality


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