Raspberry Ketone-Mediated Inhibition of Biofilm Formation in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium—An Assessment of the Mechanisms of Action

Arakkaveettil Kabeer Farha, Zhongquan Sui*, Harold Corke*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and systemic infection in humans and livestock. Salmonella biofilms consist of two major components—amyloid curli and cellulose—which contribute to the prolonged persistence of Salmonella inside the host. Effective agents for inhibiting the formation of biofilms are urgently needed. We investigated the antibiofilm effect of Raspberry Ketone (RK) and its mechanism of action against Salmonella Typhimurium 14028 using the Congo red agar method, Calcofluor staining, crystal violet method, pellicle assay, and the TMT-labeled quantitative proteomic approach. RK suppressed the formation of different types of Salmonella biofilms, including pellicle formation, even at low concentrations (200 µg/mL). Furthermore, at higher concentrations (2 mg/mL), RK exhibited bacteriostatic effects. RK repressed cellulose deposition in Salmonella biofilm through an unknown mechanism. Swimming and swarming motility analyses demonstrated reduced motility in RK-treated S. typhimurium. Proteomics analysis revealed that pathways involved in amyloid curli production, bacterial invasion, flagellar motility, arginine biosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism, were targeted by RK to facilitate biofilm inhibition. Consistent with the proteomics data, the expressions of csgB and csgD genes were strongly down-regulated in RK-treated S. typhimurium. These findings clearly demonstrated the Salmonella biofilm inhibition capability of RK, justifying its further study for its efficacy assessment in clinical and industrial settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number239
JournalAntibiotics
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Raspberry Ketone
  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • amyloid curli
  • biofilm
  • quantitative proteomics

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