Radially aligned clumps and tails in planetary nebulae

Noam Soker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We study the formation of radially aligned condensations and tails through the compression of material inside ionization shadows at early ionization phases of planetary nebulae. A dense clump, formed before ionization starts, forms an ionization shadow behind it. The surroundings, which are ionized before the shadow, have a higher temperature, and as a result compress the material in the shadow, forming a compressed tail. If the compressed tail crosses a dense shell, a dense condensation (clump) is formed there. At later stages this condensation is ionized and observed as a bright knot, radially aligned with the inner clump. We find that for the shadow to be effective, the clump should be already present as the ionization by the central star starts, and its density enhancement should be by a factor of ≳ 5. We propose this mechanism as an explanation for the radially aligned condensations recently found in the planetary nebula IC 4593.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-566
Number of pages5
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - 11 Sep 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • Planetary nebulae: general
  • Planetary nebulae: individual: IC 4593
  • Stars: AGB and post-AGB

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