Background: The interest in peptide hydrogels of natural origin has dramatically increased given the potential applications in several fields -e.g. biomedicine and nanotechnology. Interestingly, despite the current knowledge on protein hydrolysates from food sources, which self-assemble and form gels, the extraction of single peptides that can form hydrogels from food products and/or their application in food and other areas remains poorly explored. Scope and approach: This review provides a prospective analysis of the literature on the mechanism, production, toxicity and potential applications of food derived peptide hydrogels. Key findings and conclusions: Food products can be an important source of single peptides that form hydrogels, and these can find applications in food science and other areas. However, research in this area is in its infancy and its progress is limited due in part to the lack of 1) tools that will allow one to predict peptide fragments within a food protein that can self-assemble and form gels and 2) efficient peptide purification protocols. Therefore, more research will have to be directed on these areas in conjunction with optimization of recombinant, and enzymatic/fermentation production protocols.