Oxygen reduction reaction of (C-PCTNB@CNTs): A nitrogen and phosphorus dual-doped carbon electro-catalyst derived from polyphosphazenes

Sami Ullah Dar, Muhammad Aizaz Ud Din, Muhammad Usman Hameed, Shafqat Ali, Raheel Akram, Zhanpeng Wu*, Dezhen Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


This research describes the synthesis of a novel type of poly [cyclotriphosphazene-co-1,3,5-triol nitrobenzene] (PCTNB) microspheres with uniform size and diameter of more than 2 μm having well characterization. These microspheres are further used to wrap the CNTs by a facile route using template based non-covalent method to form PCTNB@CNTs composite. This composite is further well analyzed before it is subjected to pyrolysis. The direct carbonization of the PCTNB@CNTs is performed at 600 °C at a rate of 5 °C/min under N2 atmosphere to render the N, P, O doped carbonized PCTNB@CNTs having enhanced electronic features to be applied as an ORR electrocatalysts in fuel cells accompanied by TEM, XPS, Raman, FT-IR, TGA and BET analyses. Here, we have designed a metal-free, N, P, O doped (C-PCTNB@CNTs) electro-catalyst which exhibit significantly high ORR performance in acidic PEM cells showing much higher onset potential of (0.94 V) and half-wave potential of (0.85 V) with electron transfer number (n) 3.9 at 0.4–0.7 V as compared to other non-metallic electro-catalysts. Thus, (C-PCTNB@CNTs) is a metal-free, methanol tolerant carbon-based ORR catalyst, and it opens up new avenues for clean energy generation for affordable and durable fuel cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-69
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Acidic PEM cells
  • DMFCs
  • Heteroatom doped material
  • Metal-free electro-catalyst
  • Oxygen reduction reaction
  • Polyphosphazenes


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