On the capabilities and limitations of predictive, multi-zone combustion models for hydrogen-diesel dual fuel operation

Stefan Tüchler*, Pavlos Dimitriou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Compared with traditional hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen provides a high-energy content and carbon-free source of energy rendering it an attractive option for internal combustion engines. Co-combusting hydrogen with other fuels offers significant advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and carbon emissions. This study seeks to investigate the potential and limitations of multi-zone combustion models implemented in the GT-Power software package to predict dual fuel operation of a hydrogen-diesel common rail compression ignition engine. Numerical results for in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were compared with experimental data. A single cylinder dual-fuel model was used with hydrogen being injected upstream of the intake manifold. During the simulations low (20 kW), medium (40 kW) and high (60 kW) load conditions were tested with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Both single and double diesel injection strategies were examined with hydrogen energy share ratio being varied from 0 to 57% and 0–42 respectively. This corresponds to a range in hydrogen air-equivalence ratios of approximately 0–0.29. The results show that for the single-injection strategy, the model captures in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate with good accuracy across the entire load and hydrogen share ratio range. However, it appears that for high hydrogen content in the charge mixture and equivalence ratios beyond the lean flammability limit, the model struggles to accurately predict hydrogen entrainment leading to underestimated peak cylinder pressures and heat release rates. For double-injection cases the model shows good agreement for hydrogen share ratios up to 26%. However, for higher energy share ratios the issue of erroneous hydrogen entrainment into the spray becomes more accentuated leading to significant under-prediction of heat release rate and in-cylinder pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18517-18531
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number33
StatePublished - 5 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Dual-fuel combustion
  • GT-Power
  • Hydrogen-diesel
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Simulation


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