New desalinated drinking water regulations are met by an innovative post-treatment process for improved public health

R. Penn*, L. Birnhack, A. Adin, O. Lahav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

The recent supply of large volumes of seawater desalinated water in Israel prompted both the development of new water quality standards and the development of a novel post treatment process, designed to comply with the new standards at a cost effective price. The new process is designed to supply water with alkalinity, Ca2+ and calcium carbonate precipitation potential values as required in the new criteria, along with the addition of a threshold Mg 2+ concentration recently recommended by the WHO. The current paper describes the process in general, and focuses in particular on attaining these criteria while maintaining a low total hardness concentration (120 mg/L as CaCO3). The process is based on dissolving calcite using H 2SO4 and replacing the excess calcium ions generated in this process by Mg2+ ions (using a specific cation exchange resin - Amberlite) and by Na+ (using a second cation exchange resin - chabazite, from the zeolite group). Once exhausted the resins are re-loaded with Mg2+ and Na+ by the brine generated in the RO process, thus no unwanted brines are generated. A case study is presented for which operational costs were approximated at 0.034 $US/m3 product water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-231
Number of pages7
JournalWater Science and Technology: Water Supply
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Desalinated water
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Post treatment
  • Quality criteria

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