Multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES) is an analytical method for direct analysis of solids under ambient conditions in which the samples are irradiated by short UV laser pulses and the photocharges emitted are recorded as a function of the laser wavelength. The method is very sensitive, and many peaks are observed at wavelengths that are in resonance with the surface molecules. The analytical capabilities of MEES have recently been demonstrated, and here we perform a systematic comparison with some traditional spectroscopies that are commonly applied to material analysis. These include absorption, reflection, excitation and emission fluorescence, Raman, Fourier transform IR, and Fourier transform near-IR spectroscopies. The comparison is conducted for powders and for thin films of compounds that are active in all spectroscopies tested. Besides the obvious spectral parameters (signal-to-noise ratio, peak density, and resulting limits of detection), we introduce two additional variables—the spectral quality and the spectral quality density—that represent our intuitive perception of the analytical value of a spectrum. It is shown that by most parameters MEES is a superior analytical tool to the other methods tested for both sample morphologies.
- Multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy