Membrane techniques for water treatment have been growing significantly for the last decade. Reverse osmosis, for example, is the leading seawater desalination technique. Nanofiltration membranes are used more and more for hardness removal and even to desalinate slightly polluted waters. Ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes are used extensively mainly as membrane bioreactors in wastewater recovery. While this trend is growing, the membranes still may be improved significantly, based on new materials designed to increase the flux of water through the membranes at reduced pressures while maintaining or even improving the rejection of dissolved matter or suspended matter. Better membranes will reduce energy consumption while maintaining affordable separation properties.