Melt damage to the JET ITER-like Wall and divertor

G. F. Matthews, B. Bazylev, A. Baron-Wiechec, J. Coenen, K. Heinola, V. Kiptily, H. Maier, C. Reux, V. Riccardo, F. Rimini, G. Sergienko, V. Thompson, A. Widdowson

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


In October 2014, JET completed a scoping study involving high power scenario development in preparation for DT along with other experiments critical for ITER. These experiments have involved intentional and unintentional melt damage both to bulk beryllium main chamber tiles and to divertor tiles. This paper provides an overview of the findings of concern for machine protection in JET and ITER, illustrating each case with high resolution images taken by remote handling or after removal from the machine. The bulk beryllium upper dump plate tiles and some other protection tiles have been repeatedly flash melted by what we believe to be mainly fast unmitigated disruptions. The flash melting produced in this way is seen at all toroidal locations and the melt layer is driven by j x B forces radially outward and upwards against gravity. In contrast, the melt pools caused while attempting to use MGI to mitigate deliberately generated runaway electron beams are localized to several limiters and the ejected material appears less influenced by j x B forces and shows signs of boiling. In the divertor, transient melting of bulk tungsten by ELMs was studied in support of the ITER divertor material decision using a specially prepared divertor module containing an exposed edge. Removal of the module from the machine in 2015 has provided improved imaging of the melt and this confirms that the melt layers are driven by ELMs. No other melt damage to the other 9215 bulk tungsten lamellas has yet been observed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014070
JournalPhysica Scripta
Issue numberT167
StatePublished - 25 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes
Event15th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications, PFMC 2015 - Aix-en-Provence, France
Duration: 18 May 201522 May 2015


  • ITER-like Wall
  • JET
  • beryllium
  • melt layer
  • melting
  • tungsten


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