Low-load hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel engine operation – A combustion efficiency improvement approach

Pavlos Dimitriou*, Taku Tsujimura, Yasumasa Suzuki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel operation can provide significant benefits to the performance and carbon-based emissions formation of compression-ignition engines. The wide flammability range of hydrogen allows engine operation at extremely low equivalence ratios while its high diffusivity and flame speed promote wide range combustion inside the cylinder. Nonetheless, despite the excellent properties of hydrogen for internal combustion, unburned hydrogen emissions and poor combustion efficiency have been previously observed at low-load conditions of compression ignition engines. The focus of the present study is to assess the effects of different engine operation and diesel injection parameters on the combustion efficiency of a heavy-duty dual-fuel engine while observing their interactions with the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions formation of the engine. In an attempt to reduce the unburned hydrogen rates at the exhaust of the engine, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and different diesel injection strategies were implemented. Statistical methods were applied in this study to reduce the experimental time. The results show a strong connection between unburned hydrogen rates, combustion and brake thermal efficiencies with the EGR rate. Higher EGR rates increase the intake charge temperature and provide improved hydrogen combustion and fuel economy. Operation of the dual-fuel engine at low-load with high EGR rate and slightly advanced main diesel injection can deliver simultaneous benefits to most of the harmful emissions and the BTE of the engine. Despite the efforts to achieve optimal engine operation at low loads, the combustion efficiency for most of the tested cases was in the range of 90%. Thus, increased hydrogen rates should be avoided as the benefits of the dual-fuel operation are weak at low-load conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17048-17060
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number31
StatePublished - 21 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Compression ignition engine
  • Diesel
  • Dual-fuel
  • Hydrogen
  • Low-load
  • Taguchi


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