Instability and transitions of flow in a curved square duct: The development of two pairs of Dean vortices

Philip A.J. Mees*, K. Nandakumar, J. H. Masliyah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Steady developing flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a curved duct of square cross-section (the Dean problem) is investigated both experimentally and numerically. This study is a continuation of the work by Bara, Nandakumar & Masliyah (1992) and is focused on flow rates between Dn = 200 and Dn = 600 (Dn = Re/(R/a)1/2, where Re is the Reynolds number, R is the radius of curvature of the duct and a is the duct dimension; the curvature ratio, R/a, is 15.1). Numerical simulations based on the steady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations predict the development of a 6-cell secondary flow pattern above a Dean number of 350. The 6-cell state consists of two large Ekman vortices and two pairs of small Dean vortices near the outer wall that result from the primary instability that is of centrifugal nature. The 6-cell flow state develops near θ = 80° and breaks down symmetrically into a 2-cell flow pattern. The apparatus used to verify the simulations had a duct dimension of 1.27 cm and a streamwise length of 270°. At a Dean number of 453, different velocity profiles of the 6-cell flow state at θ= 90° and spanwise profiles of the streamwise velocity at every 20° were measured using a laser-Doppler anemometer. All measured velocity profiles, as well as flow visualization of secondary flow patterns, are in very good agreement with the simulations, indicating that the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations give an accurate description of the flow. Based on the similarity with boundary layer flow over a concave wall (the Görtler problem), it is suggested that the transition to the 6-cell flow state is the result of a decreasing spanwise wavelength of the Dean vortices with increasing flow rate. A numerical stability analysis shows that the 6-cell flow state is unconditionally unstable. This is the first time that detailed experiments and simulations of the development of a 6-cell flow state are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-246
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
StatePublished - 10 May 1996
Externally publishedYes


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