Inflating a chain of X-ray-deficient bubbles by a single jet activity episode

Michael Refaelovich*, Noam Soker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We show that a continuous jet with time-independent launching properties can inflate a chain of close and overlapping X-ray deficient bubbles. Using the numerical code PLUTO we run 2.5D (i.e., a spherical coordinate system with cylindrical symmetry) hydrodynamic simulations and study the interaction of the jets with the intracluster medium. A key process is vortex fragmentation due to several mechanisms, including vortex-shedding and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Our results can account for the structure of two opposite chains of close bubbles as observed in the galaxy cluster Hydra A. Our results imply that the presence of multiple pairs of bubbles does not necessarily imply several jet-launching episodes. This finding might have implications for feedback mechanisms operating by jets.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL3
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 10 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
  • galaxies: jets

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