Utilizing CO2 as a sustainable carbon source to form valuable products requires activating it by active sites on catalyst surfaces. These active sites are usually in or below the nanometer scale. Some metals and metal oxides can catalyze the CO2 transformation reactions. On metal oxide-based catalysts, CO2 transformations are promoted significantly in the presence of surface oxygen vacancies or surface defect sites. Electrons transferable to the neutral CO2 molecule can be enriched on oxygen vacancies, which can also act as CO2 adsorption sites. CO2 activation is also possible without necessarily transferring electrons by tailoring catalytic sites that promote interactions at an appropriate energy level alignment of the catalyst and CO2 molecule. This review discusses CO2 activation on various catalysts, particularly the impacts of various structural factors, such as oxygen vacancies, on CO2 activation. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
|State||E-pub ahead of print - 1 Dec 2021|
- CO2 conversion
- CO2 activation
- metal oxide nanoparticles
- oxygen vacancies