Effective thermophysical properties of ceramic materials (mainly insulating materials) with porosity (Π) >30% are reviewed. Nonmonotonic pressure and temperature dependences of the effective thermal conductivity (λ) are analyzed, based on the ceramic microstructure (pores, cracks, and grain boundaries present in many industrial refractories) and several heat-transfer mechanisms in composite multiphase materials. These mechanisms include heat conduction in solid and gas phases, thermal radiation, gas convection, and the mechanism originating from intrapore chemical conversion processes accompanied by gas emission. For high temperatures, λ of porous insulations is governed by thermal radiation. Contact-heat-barrier resistances play a less-important role in highly porous ceramics than in their dense counterparts. This underlies a weaker pressure dependence at low temperatures (<500°C) of λ of the majority of industrial insulating materials than in dense materials possessing microcracks and small pores in the grain-boundary region. For high gas pressure, λ of porous insulating materials is governed by free convective-gas motion. For low gas pressures (normally <1 kPa), where heat transfer in pores occurs in the free-molecular regime, λ is controlled by the pressure-dependent mean free path of gas molecules in pores. A classification of the porous material structure and thermophysical properties is proposed, based on the geometric model described in Part 1 of this series.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of the American Ceramic Society|
|State||Published - May 1996|