Feedback heating with slow jets in cooling flow clusters

Noam Soker*, Fabio Pizzolato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


We propose a scenario in which a large fraction or even most of the gas cooling to low temperatures of T < 104 K in cooling flow clusters gains energy directly from the central black hole. Most of the cool gas is accelerated to nonrelativistic high velocities, vj≃ 10 3-104 km s-1, after flowing through, or close to, an accretion disk around the central black hole. A poorly collimated wind (or a pair of poorly collimated opposite jets) is formed. According to the proposed scenario, this gas inflates some of the X-ray-deficient bubbles, such that the average gas temperature inside these bubbles (cavities) in cooling flow clusters is kTb ≲ 100 keV. A large fraction of these bubbles will be very faint or undetectable in the radio. The bright rims of these weak smaller bubbles will appear as ripples. We suggest that the X-ray ripples observed in the Perseus cluster, for example, are not sound waves but rather the rims of radio-faint weak bubbles that are only slightly hotter than their environment. This scenario is incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model; although not a necessary ingredient in that model, it brings it to better agreement with observations. A cooling flow does exist in the moderate cooling flow model, but the mass cooling rate is ≲10% of that in old versions of cooling flow models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)847-852
Number of pages6
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2 I
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Cooling flows
  • Galaxies: clusters: general
  • Intergalactic medium
  • X-rays: galaxies: clusters

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