Avishai Gilkis, Noam Soker, Oded Papish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


We suggest that the energetic radiation from core-collapse super-energetic supernovae (SESNe) is due to a long-lasting accretion process onto the newly born neutron star (NS), resulting from an inefficient operation of the jet-feedback mechanism (JFM). The jets that are launched by the accreting NS or black hole maintain their axis due to a rapidly rotating pre-collapse core and do not manage to eject core material from near the equatorial plane. The jets are able to eject material from the core along the polar directions and reduce the gravity near the equatorial plane. The equatorial gas expands, and part of it falls back over a timescale of minutes to days to prolong the jet-launching episode. According to the model for SESNe proposed in the present paper, the principal parameter that distinguishes between the different cases of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions, such as between normal CCSNe and SESNe, is the efficiency of the JFM. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the pre-collapse core mass, envelope mass, core convection, and, most of all, the angular momentum profile in the core. One prediction of the inefficient JFM for SESNe is the formation of a slow equatorial outflow in the explosion. The typical velocity and mass of this outflow are estimated to be veq ≈ 1000 km s-1 and Meq ≳ 1 M, respectively, though quantitative values will have to be checked in future hydrodynamic simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number178
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • stars: jets
  • stars: massive
  • supernovae: general

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