Detonation-induced transformation of graphite to hexagonal diamond

Elissaios Stavrou, Michael Bagge-Hansen, Joshua A. Hammons, Michael H. Nielsen, Bradley A. Steele, Penghao Xiao, Matthew P. Kroonblawd, Matthew D. Nelms, William L. Shaw, Will Bassett, Sorin Bastea, Lisa M. Lauderbach, Ralph L. Hodgin, Nicholas A. Perez-Marty, Saransh Singh, Pinaki Das, Yuelin Li, Adam Schuman, Nicholas Sinclair, Kamel FezzaaAlex Deriy, Lara D. Leininger, Trevor M. Willey

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We explore the structural evolution of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) under detonation-induced shock conditions using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction in the ns timescale. We observe the formation of hexagonal diamond (lonsdaleite) at pressures above 50 GPa, in qualitative agreement with recent gas gun experiments. First-principles density functional calculations reveal that under uniaxial compression, the energy barrier for the transition toward hexagonal diamond is lower than that for cubic diamond. Finally, no indication of cubic diamond formation was observed up to >70 GPa.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104116
JournalPhysical Review B
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes


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