Cytochrome cd1 -containing nitrite reductase encoding gene nirS as a new functional biomarker for detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

Meng Li, Tim Ford, Xiaoyan Li, Ji Dong Gu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

A newly designed primer set (AnnirS), together with a previously published primer set (ScnirS), was used to detect anammox bacterial nirS genes from sediments collected from three marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all retrieved sequences were clearly different from typical denitrifiers' nirS, but do group together with the known anammox bacterial nirS. Sequences targeted by ScnirS are closely related to Scalindua nirS genes recovered from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), whereas sequences targeted by AnnirS are more closely affiliated with the nirS of Candidatus 'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' and even form a new phylogenetic nirS clade, which might be related to other genera of the anammox bacteria. Analysis demonstrated that retrieved sequences had higher sequence identities (>60%) with known anammox bacterial nirS genes than with denitrifiers' nirS, on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Compared to the 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes, the anammox bacterial nirS not only showed consistent phylogenetic relationships but also demonstrated more reliable quantification of anammox bacteria because of the single copy of the nirS gene in the anammox bacterial genome and the specificity of PCR primers for different genera of anammox bacteria, thus providing a suitable functional biomarker for investigation of anammox bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3547-3553
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume45
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes

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