Biofilms on stone monuments: biodeterioration or bioprotection?

Xiaobo Liu*, Youfen Qian, Fasi Wu, Yali Wang, Wanfu Wang, Ji-Dong Gu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Debate on whether biofilms on stone monuments are biodeteriorative or bioprotective is long-standing. We propose a criterion of ‘relative bioprotective ratio’ for assessing the ambivalent role of the biofilms by comparing biodeterioration with weathering. A boundary between biodeterioration and bioprotection exists and fluctuates with dynamic microflora influenced by environmental conditions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTrends in Microbiology
StateE-pub ahead of print - 22 Jun 2022


  • biofilms
  • biodeterioration
  • bioprotection
  • stone monuments
  • active communities
  • environmental factors


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