The recent advancement of water stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands the application of this unique porous material. This review article aims at studying their applications in terms of five major areas: adsorption, membrane separation, sensing, catalysis, and proton conduction. These applications are either conducted in a water-containing environment or directly targeted on water treatment processes. The representative and significant studies in each area were comprehensively reviewed and discussed for perspectives, to serve as a reference for researchers working in related areas. At the end, a summary and future outlook on the applications of water stable MOFs are suggested as concluding remarks.